Screw Washers are available in two basic types: coarse material and fine material. Coarse Material Screw Washers are designed/suited for washing coarse aggregates and ores being nominally +5mm.
Fine Material Screw Washers are typically used for washing and dewatering -5mm x 0 sand, fines or coarse tailings, and for removing silts and/or clays being nominally -75 micron or 200 mesh. These units are also referred to by other names like screw classifiers, spiral classifiers and sand screws. Today, they are widely used to dewater and/or wash solids with a specific gravity of 2.6 and higher. Typically, the maximum particle size of the solids is controlled by a washing vibrating screen before entering the machine in a slurry. The typical maximum solids feed size is 10mm or 3/8”but can be finer.
Although Screw Washers are well-known and respected in the aggregate and mining industries, there are some common misconceptions about what they are and how they work.
A Coarse Material Screw Washer is not a Log Washer
Coarse Material Screw Washers are selected for washing rock and ore that have a mud and soluble clay contaminant that cannot be removed by a wet washing vibrating screen alone.
These low-cost units in comparison to Log Washers and Rotary ‘Barrel’ Scrubbers are often overlooked for consideration when the dirt, mud and clay can be washed away by the moderate agitation these devices provide.
Coarse Material Screw Washers are suitable for many construction aggregate applications as well as many construction and demolition (C&D) washing plants.
For washing construction aggregate like limestone, gravel, granite and similar hard ores, Coarse Material Screw Washers are selected when mud and soluble clays cannot be effectively washed on wet vibrating screens having spray bars. With the addition of the right volume of water, these relatively low-cost and low kW/HP units do a great job.
It is generally recommended that this machine be followed by a rinsing, washing screen to make sure any filmy residue is washed off the rock and ore feed. In some instances, this is not necessary.
Coarse Material Screws can remove lightweight contaminants
While many suppliers offer washing plants with Log Washers for processing C&D materials with Log Washers, in a lot of circumstances these costly, high kW/HP units aren’t needed for floating lightweight, rock-sized contaminants. Coarse Material Screw Washers can be supplied with a special overflow weir that allows most lightweight, non-waterlogged material to float out. Heavier, specific gravity-sized solids settle and are augured out as competent rock-like material.
Reversible paddles can offer more scrubbing
True! In instances where a Coarse Material Washer isn’t fully loaded some of the paddles can be flipped to scrub the rock more. It depends on the paddles design of the manufacturer you’re considering. Make sure you check this out before buying the next machine you may need for your plant.
Fine Material Screws are not recommended for cutting at a coarse sand size
Fine Material Screw Washers generally are not recommended for removing fine solids larger than 150 micron or 100 mesh. When a separation ranging from 150 to 800 micron (or 100 to 20 mesh) is required, other types of classifiers, like Hydrosizers™ (or other, similar up current classifiers), are recommended for use prior to dewatering in a Fine Material Screw Washer.
Not all Fine Material Screws are created or designed equally
Most competitive units have a close tolerance or spacing between the screw shaft and the curved dewatering plate of the washer box or tub. Because of this close spacing, the abrasive sand can wear holes in the tub.
A wider gap between the rotating screw and the stationary tub allows for a liner of sand to develop that nearly totally eliminates abrasive wear on the mild steel tub. When you’re getting pricing on a new Sand Screw ask the dealer what this spacing is to compare to others you are considering.
Fine Material Washers typically have a reputation for losing product sized fine sand
While this may be true for some Fine Material Washers, units with larger pool settling areas and longer weirs provide more fines retention. There really is a difference in the design of the washer box that directly determines the + 75 micron or +200 mesh product sized find sand retention. If this sand overflows with the silts and clays you’re losing tons per hour of product! Longer weirs and a larger pool setting area puts more sand in the product pile not lost to the tailings pond. Check the manufacturer’s publish water volume capacity chart. For the same sized unit there’s typically 20% difference between 1 manufacturer’s unit to another in the water volume capacity.
Longer is better
Longer screw shafts provide increased dewatering time, resulting in a dryer product discharge. Shorter shafted units be they what seems like a short distance of 600mm to 900mm (2ft or 3ft) longer makes a difference. The additional length is all in the dry deck dewatering section of the washer box. This is applicable in both Fine and Coarse Material Washers.
The lower bearing seal needs replaced every year or two on a Screw Washer
While this is a common practice with the some manufacturer’s machines, it is not true for all Screw Washers. Screw Washers can be designed with bearing seals that last for years. Check out this detail very carefully. With a separate grease point for a submerged lower bearing assembly, seal life is substantially increase to many times 6 to 8 years which increase a machine’s availably and reduces downtime. Not everyone has such a superior design. Due diligence in knowing what is being offered can pay big dividends to lowering your Sand Screw maintenance costs.